A Practitioner's Guide to Performance Auditing
Second Edition

About the Author

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  Muhammad Akram Khan
Former Deputy Auditor General of Pakistan

B.Com (Hons), M.Com, (Punjab), M.Sc (UK), Fellow Canadian Comprehensive Auditing Foundation (Canada)

Email: Muhammad Akram Khan

Muhammad Akram Khan, a pioneer in the effective use of Performance Auditing, is an Audit Professional with over 40 years' experience.  He developed the Performance Auditing Methodology used by the Department of the Auditor General, Pakistan. For years he served as the Director General of Performance Auditing in the Department of the Auditor General of Pakistan. Since January 2010, he is working as a Performance Audit Specialist, responsible for building capacity in performance auditing, training auditors and writing manual of performance auditing for the Department of the Auditor General of Pakistan.

In 2009, he worked as a consultant for the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome and conducted performance audit of the FAO’s Missions in Somalia and Sudan.

During 2008, Mr. Akram Khan wrote several research papers on various aspects of auditing, financial management and accountability for the World Bank Institute, besides consulting for the Organization for Security and Control in Europe (OSCE) as an Audit Consultant. As consultant of OSCE, he trained auditors in performance auditing and also supervised a real-life audit.

During 2003-2007 Mr. Akram Khan was Chief Resident Auditor at the United Nations Peacekeeping Missions in East Timor, Congo and Sudan.

During 2002-03, Mr. Akram Khan consulted with the Government of Pakistan and developed a Strategy for Introducing Internal Audit into the Federal and Provincial Governments. He wrote a state-of-the-art Government Internal Audit Manual. He drafted Internal Audit Law for the Government of Pakistan.

Before joining the United Nations Office of Internal Oversight as Chief Resident Auditor in June 2003, he was Deputy Auditor General of Pakistan. He has a diversified experience of working in the public sector at a senior level. He worked as Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, where he was the Manager of the Public Debt of the country. For over two years, he served at the apex level as Member Finance in the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority, a regulatory body for the Telecom Sector.

In the Department of the Auditor General of Pakistan, where he spent about three decades, he held various positions from Assistant Director of Audit to Deputy Auditor General.

His international experience includes work as Chairman Board of Auditors, Economic Cooperation Organization, Tehran in 1996 and Member of the said Board during 1995-97. He was member of the Board of Auditors for the Organization of Islamic Countries, Jeddah during 1995-97.

Beside, he was a visiting professor on performance auditing in the International Islamic University Malaysia. He has been a regular speaker on performance auditing for training programs of senior executives and middle managers in the National Institutes of Public Administration, Lahore and Pakistan Administrative Staff College, Lahore. At both these institutions, senior bureaucrats participate for in-service training.

His previous experience includes the delivery of numerous training courses and workshops for auditors in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and China. Responsible for training auditors of all levels in the Department of the Auditor General of Pakistan, he trained hundreds of auditors in scores of professional courses, developed training material for various programs, and wrote a training manual for the department.Mr. Khan has audited various departments and ministries of the Government of Pakistan including Post Office, Railway, Telephone, Public Works, Public Enterprises, and Foreign Missions.

Mr. Khan is well known internationally both for representing Pakistan at over 44 international conferences. He represented Pakistan at UNCTAD’s Intergovernmental Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) at Geneva during 1998-2000.

His contributions to the Internal Audit Profession include his extensive writing consisting of 14 books / booklets and 46 research papers – click the current vitae link below for a partial listing.

He is Fellow of the Canadian Comprehensive Auditing Foundation, Ottawa, Canada, Sponsoring Governor of the Association of Accounting Technicians (Pakistan Institute of Public Finance and Accounting), and Member of the Institute of Internal Auditors, Florida, USA.

Mr. Khan has Master of Science degrees from the University of Aston in the United Kingdom and both Master of Commerce and Bachelor of Commerce (Honours) degrees from the Punjab University. He won several distinctions including four Gold Medals and two Silver Medals for his excellence as a student.

In “A Practitioner’s Guide to Performance Auditing - Secnd Edition” Mr. Khan shares the vast amount of knowledge he has gained about Performance Auditing in his 35 years of experience.

Click here for complete current vitae.

A Practitioner's Guide to Performance Auditing
Second Edition

This Second Edition is a 200-page publication updated and expanded from the Guide published in 2005 that has been so very well received in the professional community.

Mr. Khan incorporates the very valuable feedback from users with his recent experience in performing performance audit at an international level to provide an even better Guide.

Since publication of the first edition Mr. Khan has accumulated more valuable insights that he shares in this edition.

The present edition contains several real-life illustrations and case studies. It takes the reader along through all stages of audit: planning, executing and reporting. The reader can see how a performance audit blooms into a full-fledged report from the initial stage of audit planning.  The Guide is designed specifically for Internal Audit Professionals who would like to improve their auditing effort employing Performance Auditing.

Click here to view an Overview in MS Word Format

Click here to view an Overview in Adobe Acrobat PDF Format

Mr. Khan also authored the unique guide A Practitioner's Guide to Corruption Auditing

The content of the publication is as follows:

Chapter One: What is Performance Auditing                   

Historical Developments                               
The Terminology Jungle                               
Definition of Performance Auditing                           
Objectives of Performance Auditing                           
Performance Auditing Conceptual Framework                   
Performance Audit Approach                               
Standards for Performance Auditing                           
Role of Auditee management in Performance Audit                   
Comparison with Financial Auditing                           
Comparison with Performance Evaluation                       
Performance Auditing: What it is and What it is not?               
Enabling Environment for Performance Auditing                   
Institutional Impediments to Performance Auditing                   
Some Misgivings                                   
Effectiveness of Performance Auditing                       

Chapter Two: Performance Auditing: The Three Es             

The Three Es of Performance Auditing: Economy, Efficiency and Effectiveness   

Chapter Three: Planning for Performance Auditing              

Need for Planning                                   
Planning Stages                                   
Overview Report                                   
Preliminary Survey Report                               

Chapter Four: Criteria in Performance Auditing                

General Criteria for Performance Auditing                       
Specific Criteria for Performance Auditing                       
Sources of Performance Audit Criteria                       
How to Determine the Audit Criteria?                       
Elements of Audit Criteria                               
Some Generally Applicable Audit Criteria                       
Issues in Performance Audit Criteria                           

Chapter Five: Evidence in Performance Auditing                

Sources of Evidence                                   
Quality of Evidence                                   
Extent of Evidence     

Chapter Six: Data Analysis in Performance Auditing               

Benefit-Cost Analysis                                   
Sensitivity Testing                                   
Output Budgeting                                   
Correlation and Regression Analysis                           
Ratio Analysis                                       
Simple Statistical Measures                               
Analysis of Cost over-run                               
Analysis of Time Over-run                               

Chapter Seven: Developing Performance Audit Program           

Writing a Performance Audit Program                       

Chapter Eight: Implementing Performance Audit Program           

Chapter Nine: Reporting Results of Performance Audit               

The Climax of Auditors’ Efforts                           
Conditions for an effective Performance Audit Report               
Style of the Performance Audit Report                       
Structure of Audit Findings                               
Use of Graphics in the Performance Audit Report                   
Issues in Performance Audit Reporting                       

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